]]>

]]>

Actually, the amplitude of the sine wave with 10% duty cycle reaches 206 V, resulting in the input power larger than 1W. In this situation, how should I set the normalization factor of the power source. Could you please give me some suggestions?

]]>Although I have set the extracted frequency of 1.5 GHz, the s4l still only extracted the frequency of 0.15 GHz

Please post some screenshots of your settings. Perhaps you are extracting more than one frequency and visualizing the wrong one.

Actually, the amplitude of the sine wave with 10% duty cycle reaches 206 V, resulting in the input power larger than 1W

How do you know that the power is larger than 1W? Where do you get that number?

Please also provide a screenshot of your thermal simulation settings, in particular the Source Settings

]]>This EM and Thermal simulation settings for PWM sine wave with duty cycle of 10% as well as the computation results are shown in below.

The results computed by using the normal continous sine is shown in below.

I don't have much experience with those, because they are rarely needed. A duty-cycle of 10% can be very effectively simulated by scaling down the input power (using normalization) in the Thermal simulation by a factor of 10. ]]>

For the purpose of solving your problem, I would reiterate that you should use a plain simple Gaussian excitation with center frequency 1.5 GHz (and bandwidth 1.5 GHz) and use normalization to get the desired power into your thermal simulation. I would not recommend to use User-Defined excitation signals if all you need is to take into account the duty cycle. The timescale for temperature increase is much (!) larger than the timescale of your excitation. All that matters is the time-averaged deposited power. ]]>