homogeneous and heterogeneous of skull

In the introduction of Therapeutic Focused Ultrasound from Sim4Life website, it explains that 'Sim4Life allows to compensate for the impact of skull induced aberration and focus shifting and even enables considering the inhomogeneous nature of the skull bone based on computed tomography (CT) image data. The results indicate the possibility of considerably extending the envelope of treatable regions in the head'.

When do the acoustic simulation, how to compare the effect of homogeneous and heterogeneous of the skull?
When assign the property of the skull, there is no optional selection for inhomogeneous of attenuation, velocity, and density.

To simulate inhomogeneous structures, I used a python script. I don't think it's been integrated in the GUI yet. To use it, you would need the image file from which you want to derive the inhomogeneity. The process is a bit involved, so let me know if you're still interested in it and we can try to set something up.

@montanaro said in homogeneous and heterogeneous of the skull:

The process is a bit involved,

Hi Montanaro

Thanks for your reply.
Yes, I am still interested in how to achieve it in Sim4Life.

According to my literature review, I founded that:
Aubry et al [1] showed that the acoustic properties of the skull can be deduced from high-resolution CT scans.
Then, Mueller et al [2] used K-wave to investigate the effect of the skull for neuromodulation.
So, I am curious about it is possible to do it in Sim4Life.

[1] Aubry, J.F., Tanter, M., Pernot, M., Thomas, J.L. and Fink, M., 2003. Experimental demonstration of noninvasive transskull adaptive focusing based on prior computed tomography scans. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 113(1), pp.84-93.

[2] Mueller, J.K., Ai, L., Bansal, P. and Legon, W., 2017. Numerical evaluation of the skull for human neuromodulation with transcranial focused ultrasound. Journal of neural engineering, 14(6), p.066012.